Waste to Energy - Pyrolysis approach
Just about any organic material, such as biomass, wood and plastic waste, can be converted into a gas mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide by gasification and pyrolysis. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700 °C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam.
Unlike incineration, gasification does not produce energy from waste through direct combustion. Waste, steam, and oxygen are fed into a gasifier where heat and pressure break apart the chemical bonds of the waste to form synthesis gas (syngas). It allows the breakdown of hydrocarbons into the gaseous mixture by carefully controlling the amount of oxygen available.
Syngas may be used directly in internal combustion engines or to make products that substitute for natural gas, chemicals, fertilisers, transportation fuels and hydrogen. Pollutants are removed from syngas before it is combusted, so that it does not produce the high levels of emissions associated with other combustion technologies.
Like gasification, pyrolysis also turns waste into energy by heating under controlled conditions, but involves thermal degradation in the complete absence of air. Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures above 430ºC (800ºF).Pyrolysis produces char, pyrolysis oil, and syngas, all of which can be used as fuels.
Gasification and pyrolysis are extremely efficient ways of using biomass to produce energy, both being more efficient than incineration. They are flexible technologies where existing gas-fuelled devices (ovens, furnaces, boilers, etc.) can be retrofitted with gasifiers and syngas can directly replace fossil fuels. Gasification is able to generate energy which is cheaper and more efficient than the steam process used in incineration.
Municipal solid waste can be reduced by as much as 75% through this process, reducing to the same degree the amount of potential emissions the waste would have created in a landfill. The process of sorting and preparing the solid waste (autoclaving) for pyrolysis is well established and the technological expertise is available in South Africa.
These technologies are cleaner than incineration and do not pose toxicity threats. However, the technology is still relatively new (or “third generation”) with limited plants in operation around the world (although anticipated to grow substantially into the future).